10 Cardiovascular System – Blood Vessels and Blood

Topic: Cardiovascular System – Blood Vessels and Blood

Text Reference: Chapter 10. Cardiovascular System – Blood Vessels and Blood

Objectives: Students should be able to…

Identify meanings of key word components of the cardiovascular system


a- (absence of, without)

pan- (all, total)

epi- (on, upon, over)

inter- (between)

peri- (surrounding, around)

endo- (within, in)

hypo- (below, deficient)

hyper- (above, excessive)

poly- (many, much)

Combining Forms

angi/o (vessel, blood vessel)

aort/o (aorta)

arteri/o (artery)

ather/o (fatty plaque)

chrom/o (color)

coagul/o (clotting)

cyt/o (cell)

eosin/o (red, dawn, rosy)

erythr/o (red)

hemat/o (blood)

hem/o (blood)

is/o (same, equal)

isch/o (deficiency, blockage)

lymph/o (lymph, lymph tissue)

lymphaden/o (lymph node, lymph tissue)

leuk/o (white)

myel/o (bone marrow, spinal cord)

mon/o (one, single)

neutr/o (neutral; neither base nor acid)

phag/o (eat, swallow)

phleb/o (vein)

plasm/o (plasma)

poikil/o (varied, irregular)

therm/o (heat)

thromb/o (clot)

thym/o (thymus gland)

splen/o (spleen)

ven/o (vein)


-ac (pertaining to)

-apheresis (removal)

-ar (pertaining to)

-blast (immature cell, embryonic)

-centesis (surgical puncture to aspirate fluid)

-cytosis (abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells))

-ectomy (excision, surgical removal)

-emia (in the blood)

-genic (producing, originating, causing)

-globin (protein)

-gram (record, radiographic image)

-graph (instrument used to record)

-graphy (process of recording, radiographic imaging)

-ia (condition of, diseased state, abnormal state)

-ic (pertaining to)

-itis (inflammation)

-logist (specialist who studies and treats)

-logy (specialty)

-lysis (loosening, dissolution, separating)

-megaly (enlarged, enlargement)

-logist (specialist, physician who studies and treats)

-oid (resembling)

-oma (tumor)

-osis (abnormal condition)

-ous (pertaining to)

-pathy (disease)

-penia (abnormal reduction in number)

-pexy (surgical fixation, suspension)

-phage (eat, swallow)

-plasty (surgical repair)

-poiesis (formation)

-sclerosis (hardening)

-stenosis (narrowing, constriction)

-scope (instrument used to view)

-scopy (process of viewing)

-stasis (stop, stopping, controlling)

-stenosis (narrowing, constriction)

-tomy (cut into, incision)

Apply the rules of medical language to pronounce, break into word parts, and define the following terms.

Label each word part by using the following abbreviations:

P = Prefix
WR = Word Root
CV = Combining Vowel
S = Suffix
CF = Combining Form

Example: osteoarthropathy (ä-stē-ō-är-THROP-ă-thē) – disease of bone and joint

WR     CV    WR     CV     S

oste / o / arthr / o /pathy

     CF               CF


Practice pronouncing and defining these medical terms that are not easily broken into word parts.

anaphylaxis (an-ă-fĭ-LAK-sĭs)

anemia (ă-NĒ-mē-ă)

immunodeficiency (im-yŭ-nō-dĕ-FISH-ĕn-sē)

ischemia (is-KĒ-mē-ă)

phlebotomist (flĕ-BŎT-ō-mĭst)

sepsis (SEP-sĭs)

serum (SĒR-ŭm)

Practice pronouncing and defining these commonly abbreviated cardiovascular system terms related to the blood.

Ab (antibody)

ABO (four main blood types – A, B, AB, O)

aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time

baso (basophils)

CBC and Diff (complete blood count and differential)

CPK (creatine phosphokinase)

EBV (Epstein-Barr virus; cause of mononucleosis)

EPO (erythropoietin)

H&H (hemoglobin and hematocrit lymphs)

Hct (hematocrit)

Hgb (hemoglobin)

mono (monocyte)

PT (prothrombin time)

PTT (partial thromboplastin time)

RBC (red blood cell, erythrocyte)

Sed Rate (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

WBC (white blood cell, leukocyte)

WNL (within normal limits)

Sort the terms from the word lists above into the following categories.

  • Disease and Disorder (terms describing any deviation from normal structure and function)
  • Diagnostic (terms related to process of identifying a disease, condition, or injury from its signs and symptoms)
  • Therapeutic (terms related to treatment or curing of diseases)
  • Anatomic (terms related to body structure)

Use terms related to the cardiovascular system.

Place the following medical terms in context to complete the scenario below.

Angiogram | blood pressure | coronary | defect | infection | palpitations



AGE: 74
SEX: Male
CONSULTING PHYSICIAN: Kevin Palmer, MD, Cardiology

REASON FOR CONSULTATION: Coronary artery disease.


  1. Coronary artery disease. He had an NST MI (non-stress test myocardial infarction) in July 2019. ________ showed three-vessel disease and had PCT of RCA OM1 (right coronary artery, first obtuse marginal). LAD (left anterior descending artery) had 60% stenosis which was no significant by FFR (Fractional flow reserve) and medical management was recommended. He had a Grade 2 left ventricular function after the MI, but it improved a year later. His last echocardiogram in 2020 showed preserved ejection fraction at 60 with no significant valvular abnormalities and no significant wall motion abnormalities. He had an exercise stress test in June 2021 where he could achieve a workload of 9 metabolic equivalent of task (MET) without symptoms or electrical changes. Perfusion images showed a wall fixed inferior ________  in keeping with his previous inferior MI.
  2. Hypertension.
  3. Hypercholesterolemia.
  4. Ex-smoker quit in 2016.
  5. Rare alcohol.
  6. Gout.
  7. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Aspirin 81 mg q.d.
Bisoprolol 5 mg q.d.
Candesartan 60 mg q.d.
Atorvastatin 80 mg q.d.
Ezetrol 10 mg q.d.
Allopurinol 300 mg q.d.

HISTORY: Overall, he has been feeling well. He denies any exertional symptoms with usual activity. He walks his dog 20 minutes a day and denies any chest pain, shortness of breath. He denies orthopnea, ________, dizziness presyncope, or syncope. He was recently hospitalized with a respiratory ________. He was treated with antibiotics and was discharged 2 days later. He has been feeling better and has gone back to his usual activities. In regards to his CLL, he has been stable with usual lymphocyte count around 30. No other cytopenia. No splenomegaly. He is being followed with a surveillance strategy with regular CBCs by hematologist.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: On physical exam he is alert and oriented in no acute distress, hemodynamically stable, ________ 120/70, heart rate 60 with regular rhythm, there is no evidence of volume overload, lungs are clear. Lab work showed white cell count of 8.5 with lymphocytes, 12 hemoglobin, 280 platelets, 0,8 creatinine, 70 EGFR, 144 sodium, 4.6 potassium, Hgb A1c 5.4, DL 1.2.

SUMMARY: Mr. Miranda seems to be stable from the cardiac point of view. He has a history of ________ artery disease with previous MI treated with PCI of RCA and OM1. He has a residual 60% stenosis of LAD that was not significant by FFR. He is on antiplatelet agents, high intensity statin therapy, and the combination of ARB’s and beta-blockers. As long as his functional capacity remains stable, we do not need to do a follow up. Exercise treadmill test but should his symptoms change, this should be considered.

PLAN: His blood pressure is well controlled. His LDL is within the goal. There is no history of diabetes. He quit smoking 2016. I made no changed to his current treatment plan and advised him to come back in a year’s time and earlier, should symptoms change.

Kevin Palmer, MD, Cardiology

Test your knowledge by answering the questions below.

Proteins produced by B lymphocytes in response to a non-self antigen

  1. Antibodies
  2. Capillaries
  3. Macrophages

An autoimmune disorder in which the body mounts an immune response against its own joint tissues, causing inflammation and damage to the joints

  1. Sickle Cell Disease
  2. Crohn Disease
  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis

A freely moving piece of a substance (plaque or blood clot) that travels through the circulation until it blocks a smaller blood vessel, cutting of the supply of oxygen to the tissue

  1. Perfusion
  2. Hemostasis
  3. Embolus

The thickness of fluids that affects their ability to flow

  1. Pneumothorax
  2. Viscosity
  3. Thrombosis

The process by which the body seals a ruptured blood vessel to prevent further blood loss

  1. Hemostasis
  2. Hemopoiesis
  3. Homeostasis


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Medical Terminology Student Companion Copyright © 2022 by Stacey Grimm; Colleen Allee; Heidi Belitz; Traci Gotz; Micheal Randolph; Elaine Strachota; and Laurie Zielinski is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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