9 Cardiovascular System – Heart

WTCS Learning Objectives

  • Apply the rules of medical language to build, analyze, spell, pronounce, abbreviate, and define terms as they relate to the cardiovascular system
  • Identify meanings of key word components of the cardiovascular system
  • Categorize diagnostic, therapeutic, procedural or anatomic terms related to the cardiovascular system
  • Use terms related to the cardiovascular system
  • Use terms related to the diseases and disorders of the cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System – Heart Word Parts

Click on prefixes, combining forms, and suffixes to reveal a list of word parts to memorize for the cardiovascular system – Heart.

Introduction to the Heart

The heart is a fist-sized vital organ that has one job: to pump blood. If one assumes an average of 75 beats per minute, a human heart would beat approximately 108,000 times in one day, more than 39 million times in one year, and nearly 3 billion times during a 75-year lifespan. At rest, each of the major pumping chambers of the heart ejects approximately 70 mL blood per contraction in an adult. This would be equal to 5.25 liters of blood per minute and approximately 14,000 liters per day. Over one year, that would equal 10,000,000 liters of blood sent through roughly 100,000 km of blood vessels. In order to understand how that happens, it is necessary to understand the anatomy and physiology of the heart.

Watch this video:

Media 9.1. The Heart, Part 1 – Under Pressure: Crash Course A&P #25 [Online video]. Copyright 2015 by CrashCourse.

Cardiovascular System – Heart Medical Terms

Anatomy of the Heart


The human heart is located within the thoracic cavity, between the lungs in the space known as the mediastinum. Figure 9.1 shows the position of the heart within the thoracic cavity. Within the mediastinum, the heart is separated from the other mediastinal structures by a tough membrane known as the pericardium, or pericardial sac, and sits in its own space called the pericardial cavity. The , which carry blood to and from the heart, are attached to the superior surface of the heart, which is called the base. The base of the heart is located at the level of the third costal cartilage. The inferior tip of the heart, the apex, lies just to the left of the sternum between the junction of the fourth and fifth ribs.

Concept Check

  • On the diagram below (Figure 9.1), locate the mediastinum, the pericardial cavity, the base of the heart and the apex of the heart.
  • Locate the largest vein in the body superior vena cava.
This diagram shows the location of the heart in the thorax (sagittal and anterior views). The sagittal view labels read (from top, clockwise): first rib, aortic arch, thoracic arch, esophagus, inferior vena cava, diaphragm, thymus, trachea. The anterior view labels read (from top, clockwise): mediastinum, arch of aorta, pulmonary trunk, left auricle, left lung, left ventricle, pericardial cavity, apex of heart, edge of parietal pericardium, diaphragm, edge of parietal pleura, ribs, right ventricle, right atrium, right auricle, right lung, superior vena cava.
Figure 9.1. Position of the Heart in the Thorax. The heart is located within the thoracic cavity, medially between the lungs in the mediastinum. It is about the size of a fist, is broad at the top, and tapers toward the base. From Betts, et al., 2021. Licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Membranes and Layers of the Heart Walls

The heart and the are surrounded by a membrane known as the pericardium or pericardial sac. The pericardium consists of two distinct sub layers:

  • The sturdy outer fibrous pericardium is made of tough, dense connective tissue that protects the heart and holds it in position.
  • Separated by the pericardial cavity and containing pericardial fluid the inner pericardium consists of two layers:
    • the outer parietal pericardium, which is fused to the fibrous pericardium.
    • the inner visceral pericardium, or epicardium, which is fused to the heart and forms the outer layer of the heart wall.

The walls of the heart consist of three layers:

  • The outer epicardium, which is another name for the visceral pericardium mentioned above.
  • The thick, middle myocardium, which is made of muscle tissue and gives the heart its ability to contract.
  • The inner endocardium, which lines the heart chambers and is the main component of the heart valves.

Concept Check

  • Look at Figure 9.2 below, and name the layers of the heart wall and surrounding membranes, starting with the innermost layer.
  • As shown on the diagram, suggest why is the myocardium layer is thicker than the endocardium layer?
Layers of the Heart Wall. The pericardial membrane that surrounds the heart consists of three layers and the pericardial cavity. The heart wall also consists of three layers. The pericardial membrane and the heart wall share the epicardium.
Figure 9.2. Layers of the Heart Wall. The pericardial membrane that surrounds the heart consists of three layers and the pericardial cavity. The heart wall also consists of three layers. The pericardial membrane and the heart wall share the epicardium From Blausen, 2014. Licensed under CC BY 3.0.

Internal Structures of the Heart

The heart consists of four chambers:

  • The upper chambers are the right and left atria (singular: atrium).
  • The lower chambers are the right and left ventricles.

The interventricular septum is a muscular wall that separates the right and left ventricles. The interatrial septum separates the right and left atria.

The atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart are separated by an atrioventricular (AV) valve:

  • The right AV valve, or tricuspid valve, separates the right atrium and right ventricle.
  • The left AV valve, or bicuspid valve, separates the left ventricle and the left atrium. This valve is also called the mitral valve.

There are also two semilunar valves:

  • The pulmonary valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary trunk.
  • The aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta.

Anatomy Labeling Activity

Physiology of the Heart

In order for the heart to do its job of pumping blood to the lungs and to the body, nutrients and oxygen must be supplied to the cells of the heart. The heart also needs to coordinate its contractions so that all parts are working together to pump blood effectively. To understand how all of this works together to give the heart its ability to pump blood, we will examine three interdependent aspects of heart function.

  1. Circulation through the heart: Blood is pumped by the heart in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body.
  2. The heart as an organ (coronary blood supply): The heart is an organ, made of cells and tissues which require their own blood supply.
  3. The heart’s electrical conduction system: The heart is able to independently generate and transmit instructions to the myocardium, in order to make it contract and pump the blood.

Circulation Through the Heart: The Heart as a Pump

The heart pumps blood to two distinct but linked circulatory systems called the pulmonary and systemic circuits. The pulmonary circuit transports blood to and from the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and drops off carbon dioxide. The systemic circuit transports freshly oxygenated blood to virtually all of the tissues of the body and returns relatively deoxygenated blood and carbon dioxide to the heart to be sent back to the pulmonary circulation.

Did You Know?

The heart sounds heard through a stethoscope are the sounds of the four heart valves opening and closing at specific times during one cardiac cycle.
  1. Blood that is carrying carbon dioxide and waste products from the body tissues is returned to the right atrium via the and the .
  2. From the right atrium, the deoxygenated blood moves through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
  3. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary valve into the , which splits into the right and left pulmonary arteries, leading toward the lungs.  These arteries branch many times before reaching the pulmonary capillaries, where gas exchange occurs: carbon dioxide exits the blood and oxygen enters. The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in the postnatal body that carry deoxygenated blood. Did you notice that they are often colored blue on diagrams of the heart?
  4. Freshly oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins. These veins are the only veins in the body that carry highly oxygenated blood, and are often colored red on heart images.
  5. From the left atrium, the blood moves through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
  6. The left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic valve, into the aorta, delivering blood to all parts of the body.

Pulmonary Circuit

Blood exiting from the right ventricle flows into the pulmonary trunk, which bifurcates into the two pulmonary arteries. These vessels branch to supply blood to the pulmonary capillaries, where gas exchange occurs within the lung alveoli. Blood returns via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium.

Concept Check

  • On Figure 9.3 below, use your finger to trace the pathway of blood flowing through the left side of the heart, naming each of the following structures as you encounter them: right and left pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta.
The top panel shows the human heart with the arteries and veins labeled (from top, clockwise): aorta, left pulmonary arteries, pulmonary trunk, left atrium, left pulmonary veins, aortic semilunar valve, mitral valve, left ventricle, inferior vena cava, right ventricle, tricuspid valve, right atrium, pulmonary semilunar valve, right pulmonary veins, right pulmonary arteries, superior vena cava. The bottom panel shows a rough map of the the human circulatory system. Labels read (from top, clockwise): systemic capillaries of upper body, systemic arteries to upper body, pulmonary trunk, left atrium, left ventricle, systemic arteries to lower body, systemic capillaries of lower body, systemic veins from lower body, right ventricle, right atrium, pulmonary capillaries in lungs, systemic veins from upper body
Figure 9.3. Dual System of the Human Blood Circulation. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle, where it is pumped into the pulmonary circuit. The blood in the pulmonary artery branches is low in oxygen but relatively high in carbon dioxide. Gas exchange occurs in the pulmonary capillaries (oxygen into the blood, carbon dioxide out), and blood high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide is returned to the left atrium. From here, blood enters the left ventricle, which pumps it into the systemic circuit. Following exchange in the systemic capillaries (oxygen and nutrients out of the capillaries and carbon dioxide and wastes in), blood returns to the right atrium and the cycle is repeated. From Betts, et al., 2021. Licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Cardiac Cycle

The process of pumping and circulating blood is active, coordinated and rhythmic. Each heartbeat represents one cycle of the heart receiving blood and ejecting blood.

  • Diastole is the portion of the cycle in which the heart is relaxed and the atria and ventricles are filling with blood. The AV valves are open, so that blood can move from the atria to the ventricles.
  • Systole is the portion of the cycle in which the heart contracts, AV valves slam shut, and the ventricles eject blood to the lungs and to the body through the open semilunar valves. Once this phase ends, the semilunar valves close, in preparation for another filling phase.

Heart Terms not Easily Broken into Word Parts

Heart Abbreviations

Many terms and phrases related to the cardiovascular system- heart are abbreviated.
Learn these common abbreviations by expanding the list below.

Diseases and Disorders


The heart of a well-trained athlete can be considerably larger than the average person’s heart. This is because exercise results in an increase in muscle cells called . Hearts of athletes can pump blood more effectively at lower rates than those of non-athletes. However, when an enlarged heart is not the result of exercise, it may be due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The cause of an abnormally enlarged heart muscle is unknown, but the condition is often undiagnosed and can cause sudden death in apparently otherwise healthy young people (Betts, et al., 2021).

Other types of cardiomyopathy include:

  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, which also has an unknown cause and is seen in people of any age. In this disorder, one of the ventricles of the heart is larger than normal.
  • Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, an inherited condition which results in irregular heart rhythms.
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy, which is a complication of other conditions which cause the myocardium to scar or stiffen (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019).

Cardiomyopathy may also be caused by myocardial infarctions, myocardial infections, pregnancy, alcohol or cocaine abuse, autoimmune and endocrine diseases. Because the myocardium is responsible for contracting and pumping blood, patients with cardiomyopathy experience impaired heart function which may lead to heart failure. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). To learn more about cardiomyopathy visit the CDC’s cardiomyopathy web page.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is defined as the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body. It is also called congestive heart failure (CHF). This condition causes swelling in the lower extremities and shortness of breath, due to a buildup of fluid in the lungs. It may be caused by cardiomyopathy and it may lead to and heart valve disorders (Heart & Stroke, n.d.). To learn more, visit the Heart & Stroke’s congestive heart failure web page.

Valvular Heart Disease

Concept check

Do you remember the names and locations of the 4 heart valves?

The four heart valves open and close at specific times during the cardiac cycle, in order to ensure that blood flows in only one direction through the heart. This requires that these valves open and close completely. Infections such as rheumatic disease or bacterial endocarditis can affect the heart valves and result in scar tissue formation which interferes with valve function. Other causes of heart valve disease include: congenitally malformed valves, autoimmune diseases, and other cardiovascular diseases such as aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019a).

Heart valve disease may be asymptomatic, or cause , , fatigue and other symptoms. It is often detected when a is heard through a stethoscope (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019a).

  • Mitral Valve Prolaspse
    • The mitral (bicuspid) valve is diseased or malformed and is not able to close completely, allowing the regurgitation of blood back into the left atrium during systole. Because some of the blood goes back into the atrium, insufficient blood is pumped out of the ventricle into the systemic circulation. This inability to close properly and the resulting regurgitation may also be found in other heart valves (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019a).
  • Aortic Stenosis
    • The aortic valve is narrowed and hardened, preventing it from opening fully and allowing sufficient blood to travel to the systemic circulation. Any heart valve can be stenosed, but this disorder most often affects the aortic valve (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019a).

Visit the CDC’s page on valvular heart disease to learn more.


An aneurysm is a defect in the wall of an artery in which the wall becomes thin and weak and starts to balloon out as blood pulses against the vessel wall. This can happen to any artery and even to the myocardial walls. Aneurysms sometimes occur in the portion of the aorta that is in the thorax (see Figure 9.4). If these aneurysms start to leak between layers of the vessel wall, the condition is known as aortic dissection. If an aortic or cardiac aneurysm bursts, there is sudden, massive internal bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019b).

This diagram shows the arteries in the thoracic and abdominal cavity. Visceral branches of the thoracic aorta labels (from top): bronchial, esophageal, mediastinal, pericardial, thoracic aorta, aortic hiatus, celiac trunk, left gastric, splenic, common hepatic, superior mesenteric, abdominal aorta, inferior mesenteric, external iliac. Parietal (somatic) branches of thoracic aorta labels (from top): intercostal, superior phrenic, inferior phrenic, diaphragm, adrenal, renal, gonadal, lumbar, medial sacral, common iliac, internal iliac.
Figure 9.4 Arteries of the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions. The thoracic aorta gives rise to the arteries of the visceral and parietal branches. (Picture: Wikimedia. Aortic aneurysm)

People who smoke, have , , and/or have an increased risk of developing aneurysms. Having a family history of aneurysms or certain genetic diseases may also increase a person’s risk of developing an aneurysm.

Aneurysms are often asymptomatic and may be detected incidentally during diagnostic tests that are being done for other reasons. They are sometimes repaired surgically and sometimes treated with medications such as (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019b; Tittley, n.d.). Visit the Society for Vascular Surgery’s page on thoracic aortic aneurysms to learn more.

Heart Defects

Fetal circulation is different from circulation. There are 2 extra openings in the fetal heart, the and the , which allow blood circulation that bypasses the immature fetal lungs. The fetal blood is reoxygenated by the mother’s lungs and transported between mother and fetus via the placenta. These two openings usually close around the time of birth (Betts, et al., 2021).

Septal defects are commonly first detected through . Unusual heart sounds may be detected because blood is not flowing and valves are not closing correctly. Medical imaging is ordered to confirm or rule out a diagnosis. In many cases, treatment may not be needed.

  • Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital condition in which the ductus arteriosus fails to close.  If untreated, the condition can result in congestive heart failure.
  • Patent foramen ovale is one type of atrial septal defect (ASD), due to a failure of the hole in the to close at birth.
    • As much as 20 – 25 percent of the general population may have a patent foramen ovale, most have the benign, asymptomatic version but in extreme cases a surgical repair is required to close the opening permanently.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital condition that may also occur from exposure to unknown environmental factors; it occurs when there is an opening in the caused by blockage of the pulmonary trunk, normally at the pulmonary semilunar valve. This allows blood that is relatively low in oxygen from the right ventricle to flow into the left ventricle and mix with the blood that is relatively high in oxygen.
    • Symptoms include a distinct heart murmur, low blood oxygen percent saturation, , , and in children, difficulty in feeding or failure to grow and develop.
    • It is the most common cause of following birth. Other heart defects may also accompany this condition, which is typically confirmed by imaging.
  • In the case of severe septal defects, including both tetralogy of fallot and patent foramen ovale, failure of the heart to develop properly can lead to a condition commonly known as a blue baby. Regardless of normal skin pigmentation, individuals with this condition have an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood, which leads to , especially when active (Betts, et al., 2021).
This diagram shows the structure of the heart with different congenital defects. The top left panel shows patent foramen ovale, the top right panel shows coarctation of the aorta, the bottom left panel shows patent ductus ateriosus and the bottom right shows tetralogy of fallot.
Figure 9.5. Congenital Heart Defects. (a) A patent foramen ovale defect is an abnormal opening in the interatrial septum, or more commonly, a failure of the foramen ovale to close. (b) Coarctation of the aorta is an abnormal narrowing of the aorta. (c) A patent ductus arteriosus is the failure of the ductus arteriosus to close. (d) Tetralogy of Fallot includes an abnormal opening in the interventricular septum. From Betts, et al., 2021. Licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Diseases of the Coronary Circulation

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary artery disease occurs when the buildup of in the coronary arteries obstructs the flow of blood and decreases of the vessels. This condition is called . As the disease progresses and coronary blood vessels become more and more narrow, cells of the myocardium become , which causes symptoms of , in some patients. If untreated, coronary artery disease can lead to MI.

The image below shows the blockage of coronary arteries on an (Betts, et al., 2021).

This photo shows a blockage in the coronary artery and in the circumflex artery.
Figure 9.6. Angiogram of Atherosclerotic Coronary Arteries. In this coronary angiogram (X-ray), the dye makes visible two occluded coronary arteries. Such blockages can lead to decreased blood flow (ischemia) and insufficient oxygen (hypoxia) delivered to the cardiac tissues. If uncorrected, this can lead to cardiac muscle death (myocardial infarction). From Betts, et al., 2021. Licensed under CC BY 4.0.


CAD is progressive and chronic. Risk factors include smoking, family history, , obesity, diabetes, high alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, stress, and . Treatments may include medication, changes to diet and exercise, angioplasty with a balloon catheter, insertion of a stent, or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (Betts, et al., 2021).

Angioplasty-Balloon Inflated with Stent
Figure 9.7 Angioplasty-Before and after image of Balloon Inflated with Stent From Blausen, 2014. Licensed under CC BY 3.0.
  • Angioplasty is a procedure in which the is mechanically widened with a balloon. A specialized catheter with an expandable tip is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg, and then directed to the site of the occlusion. At this point, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque material and to open the vessel to increase blood flow. Once the balloon is deflated and retracted, a stent consisting of a specialized mesh is typically inserted at the site of occlusion to reinforce the weakened and damaged walls and prevent re-occlusion.
Single, Double, Triple and Quadruple Bypass Image
Figure 9.8 Single, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). Double, Triple and Quadruple Bypass Image. From Blausen, 2014. Licensed under CC BY 3.0. BY 3.0.
  • Coronary bypass surgery (Coronary artery bypass graft CABG) is a surgical procedure which grafts a replacement vessel obtained from another part of the body to bypass the occluded area. (Betts, et al., 2021).

Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the medical term for a heart attack.

An MI normally results from a lack of blood flow to a region of the heart, resulting in death of the cardiac muscle cells. An MI often occurs when a coronary artery is blocked by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. It can also occur when a piece of an atherosclerotic plaque breaks off and travels through the coronary arterial system until it lodges in one of the smaller vessels. MIs may be triggered by excessive exercise, in which the partially occluded artery is no longer able to pump sufficient quantities of blood, or severe stress, which may induce spasm of the smooth muscle in the walls of the vessel (Betts, et al., 2021).

Did you know?

It is estimated that between 22 and 64 percent of myocardial infarctions are .

In the case of acute MI (AMI), there is often sudden pain beneath the sternum (retrosternal pain) called angina pectoris, often radiating down the left arm in males but not in female patients. Other common symptoms include , , nausea and vomiting, , anxiety, and . Many of the symptoms are shared with other medical conditions, including anxiety attacks and simple indigestion, so differential diagnosis is critical (Betts, et al., 2021).

An MI can be confirmed by examining the patient’s .

Other diagnostic tests include:

  • .
  • .
  • .
  • Common blood tests indicating an MI include elevated levels of and , both of which are released by damaged cardiac muscle cells (Betts, et al., 2021).

MIs may induce dangerous heart rhythms and even cardiac arrest. Important risk factors for MI include coronary artery disease, age, smoking, high blood levels of , low levels of , , , obesity, lack of physical exercise, chronic kidney disease, excessive alcohol consumption, and use of illegal drugs (Betts, et al., 2021).

Diseases of the (Electrical) Conduction System


Did you know?

Arrhythmia does not mean an absence of a heartbeat! That would be , or flat line!
Arrhythmia is defined as the absence of a regular rhythm, meaning that the heart rate is either too fast, too slow or just irregular.

The heart’s natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial (SA) node initiates an electrical impulse 60-90 times per minute in a resting adult. This impulse travels through the heart’s conduction system in order to ensure a smooth, coordinated pumping action. This electrical activity can be detected and recorded through the skin using an . may occur when the SA node fails to initiate an impulse, or when the conduction system fails to transmit that impulse through the heart.

In the event that the electrical activity of the heart is severely disrupted, cessation of electrical activity or fibrillation may occur. In fibrillation, the heart beats in a wild, uncontrolled manner, which prevents it from being able to pump effectively.

  • Atrial fibrillation is a serious condition, but as long as the ventricles continue to pump blood, the patient’s life may not be in immediate danger.
  • Ventrical fibrillation is a medical emergency that requires life support, because the ventricles are not effectively pumping blood, left untreated ventricular fibrillation may lead to brain death.

The most common treatment is defibrillation which uses special paddles to apply a charge to the heart from an external electrical source in an attempt to establish a normal sinus rhythm. A defibrillator effectively stops the heart so that the SA node can trigger a normal conduction cycle. External automated defibrillators (EADs) are being placed in areas frequented by large numbers of people, such as schools, restaurants, and airports. These devices contain simple and direct verbal instructions that can be followed by non-medical personnel in an attempt to save a life (Betts, et al., 2021).

Abnormal Heart Rates

Bradycardia is the condition in which resting adult heart rate drops below 60 bpm. a client exhibiting symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, dizziness, , chest discomfort, palpitations or respiratory distress may indicate that the heart is not providing sufficient oxygenated blood to the tissues. If the patient is not exhibiting symptoms then bradycardia is not considered clinically significant. The term relative bradycardia may be used with a patient who has a HR in the normal range but is still suffering from these symptoms.  Most patients remain asymptomatic as long as the HR remains above 50 bpm.

Tachycardia is the condition in which the resting rate is above 100 bpm. Tachycardia is not normal in a resting patient and may be detected in pregnant women or individuals experiencing extreme stress. Some individuals may remain , but when present, symptoms may include dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid pulse, heart palpitations, chest pain, or syncope. Treatment depends upon the underlying cause but may include medications, , , or surgery (Betts, et al., 2021).

Heart Block

heart block refers to an interruption in the normal conduction pathway. Heart blocks are generally named after the part of the conduction system that is causing the problem. For example, bundle branch blocks occur within either the left or right atrioventricular bundle branches.


Medical Terms in Context

Medical Specialties and Procedures Related to the Heart

Cardiologists and Cardiovascular Surgeons

Cardiologists are medical doctors that specialize in diagnosing and treating heart disease non-invasively. Cardiovascular/thoracic surgeons provide surgical treatments for the heart and other thoracic organs (American Medical Association, 2020). To learn more about these specialists please visit the AMA’s Specialty Profiles web page.

Cardiology Technologists

Cardiology Technologists complete a college training program and perform diagnostic tests such as , stress testing, Holter monitor testing, ambulatory blood pressure testing, as well as monitoring and programming (American College of Cardiology). Please visit the American College of Cardiology webpage for more information.

Cardiovascular Perfusionists

Cardiovascular perfusionists complete a college training program and are responsible for operation of the heart-lung bypass machine during open heart surgery. They also monitor the patient’s vitals, administering IV fluids, and other drugs (Mayo Clinic). Please visit the Mayo Clinic: Cardiovascular Perfusion page for more information.

Test Yourself



American Medical Association. (2020). Specialty Profiles. https://freida.ama-assn.org/specialty/cardiovascular-disease-im

American College of Cardiology (2020). Home. https://www.acc.org/#sort=%40commonsortdate%20descending

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Cardiomyopathy. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/cardiomyopathy.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a). Valvular heart disease. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/valvular_disease.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b). Aortic aneurysm. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/aortic_aneurysm.htm

[CrashCourse]. (2015, July 6). The heart, part 1 – under pressure: Crash course A&P #25 [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/X9ZZ6tcxArI

Heart & Stroke. (n.d.). Heart failure. Heart and Stroke Foundation. https://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/heart-failure

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Cardiovascular perfusion. Mayo Clinic. https://college.mayo.edu/academics/explore-health-care-careers/careers-a-z/cardiovascular-perfusionist/#:~:text=Cardiovascular%20perfusionists%20are%20responsible%20for,patient’s%20circulatory%20or%20respiratory%20function

Eagleton, M. J. (n.d.). Thoracic aortic aneurysms. Retrieved from Society for Vascular Surgery: https://vascular.org/


Unless otherwise indicated, this chapter contains material adapted from Anatomy and Physiology (on OpenStax), by Betts, et al. and is used under a a CC BY 4.0 international license. Download and access this book for free at https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/1-introduction.


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Medical Terminology Copyright © 2022 by Stacey Grimm; Coleen Allee; Elaine Strachota; Laurie Zielinski; Traci Gotz; Micheal Randolph; and Heidi Belitz is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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